ʻO ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka plastik a me ka nānā ʻana i ke kumukūʻai

2021-11-10

  

  Ma ka waena o ke kenekulia 18, ua hiki i nā kānaka ke hana i nā resins kūlohelohe e like me ka asphalt a me ka rosin i loko o nā plastic i hana ʻia e ke kanaka. I loko o hoʻokahi haneli mau makahiki i hala iho nei, ua neʻe nā plastics mai ka papa hana polymer kūlohelohe mua i ke kahua waiwai synthetic, e hoʻonā i ka pilikia make o ka nele o nā mea maka. A laila ua ulu aʻe ia i ka makahiki 1970 a lilo i mea koʻikoʻi i ka hana ʻenehana hou a me ke ola. I kēia manawa, ua hoʻololi nā plastic i hoʻololi ʻia i nā plastic plastics kahiko a ua lilo i mea hoʻohana nui loa e like me FR4 pepa, 3240 Epoxy Resin Pepa a 3026 Phenolic pulupulu lole Laminated Pepa, ʻoiai e noʻonoʻo ana i ka pae ʻenehana ʻokiʻoki o ka ʻepekema waiwai hou.


1. He aha ka plastic?


  He manaʻo nui loa ka plastic. ʻO ka mea maʻamau e pili ana i nā polymers molecular kiʻekiʻe a pau i hoʻohui ʻia mai ka monomer maka kumu a i hana ʻia ma o ka polymerization. ʻO ia ka ʻehā o nā mea ʻoihana nui ma hope o ke kila, ka lāʻau a me ka sima. ʻO ka maʻamau, kapa ʻia ka resin kumu i hana ʻia e nā mea kanu kemika "non-modified plastic", a i ʻole "pure resin".


  E like me ka waiwai kino a me ke kemika o ka mea,


  Hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia nā plastik i ʻelua mau ʻāpana: thermoplastic a me thermosetting.


  ʻO nā mea Thermoplastic, ʻaʻohe hoʻololi kemika ma waena o nā moleke i ka wā i wela ai, lilo ka mea i palupalu me ka piʻi ʻana o ka mahana, a paʻakikī ke emi ka mahana. Hiki ke hoʻohuli pinepine ʻia kēia kaʻina hana. No laila, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka pale ʻana i ka hopena o ia mau huahana, a ʻoi aku ka maʻalahi o ka hana ʻana, kahi kūpono loa no kekahi mau hoʻolālā paʻakikī. Ma muli o nā waiwai o nā mea thermoplastic i hiki ke hoʻomehana pinepine ʻia, he mau mea hana hou lākou, e helu ana ma kahi o 85% o nā noi ʻoihana o kēia manawa.


  ʻO nā mea thermosetting, e like me ka inoa, e pili ana i kahi mea i hoʻololi ʻia ma hope o ka hoʻomehana ʻana i kekahi mahana, a ua hoʻokumu ʻia kahi ʻano pūnaewele pili i waena o nā kaulahao molekala e paʻa a ʻaʻole hiki ke hoʻoluliluli hou ʻia. ʻO ia mau mea i loaʻa i ka ikaika mechanical maikaʻi a me ke kūpaʻa dimensional, a maikaʻi loa hoʻi i ka pale wela a me ka insulation. Hoʻohana pinepine ʻia lākou i nā hiʻohiʻona e pono ai ka mālama ʻana i ka wela, ka insulation, ka pale ʻana i ka corrosion, a me ke kūpaʻa wela kiʻekiʻe.


  Hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia nā plastik i nā plastic crystalline a me nā plastics non-crystalline e like me kā lākou crystallinity. ʻAʻohe laina hoʻokaʻawale maopopo ma ʻaneʻi.


  ʻO ka mea maʻamau, kapa ʻia nā polymers me ka crystallinity ma luna o 80% i ka plastic crystalline. He wahi hehee akaka kona a he translucent a opaque paha. Ma muli o kona ʻili maʻalahi, ʻaʻole maʻalahi ka hana ʻana i ka mālama ʻana, e like me ka baking varnish, chrome plating, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe.


  ʻO ka plastic Amorphous e pili ana i nā polymers me ka crystallinity ma lalo o 20%. ʻAʻohe wahi heheʻe a maopopo. ʻO kona mau hiʻohiʻona, nā mea maikaʻi a me nā pōʻino e kū'ē wale ana i nā mea o nā plastic crystalline, a hoʻohana nui ʻia i ke ola o kēlā me kēia lā.


2. No ke aha e hoʻololi ʻia ai ka plastic?


  Loaʻa i ka plastic nā mea maikaʻi o ka haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, ka hana maʻalahi a me ka hoʻokumu ʻana, ka pale ʻana i ka corrosion, ka insulation maikaʻi, ka lawe māmā maikaʻi, a me ke kala maʻalahi, a haʻahaʻa ke kumukūʻai. Eia nō naʻe, ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā mea metala maʻamau, ʻaʻole maikaʻi ke kūpaʻa wela a me ka ikaika mechanical maʻamau, a ʻo kā lākou noi ma ke kahua ʻenekinia he mau palena.


  No ka laʻana, ʻo ka polypropylene maʻamau (PP), kona mau waiwai mechanical maikaʻi loa a me ke kūpaʻa wela maikaʻi e hoʻohana nui ʻia i loko o nā kaʻa kaʻa a me nā mea hana home. Eia nō naʻe, he mau hemahema kēia ʻano mea e like me ka haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa, maikaʻi ʻole ke kū ʻana o ka wā, ʻaʻole lawa ka rigidity, hoʻonaninani maikaʻi ʻole a me ka hui ʻana, a me ka paʻakikī i ka hoʻopili ʻana a me ka electroplating, kahi hopena nui i ka hana a me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka huahana.

 

  No kekahi laʻana, ʻo ka nylon (PA6 / PA66) i hoʻohana pinepine ʻia i ke ola he mau mea maikaʻi o ka paʻakikī, ka pale ʻana i ka ʻaʻahu, ka aila a me ka pale wai, a kūpono loa no ka hana ʻana i nā ʻāpana uila (nā mea hoʻohui), nā ʻāpana kaʻa (nā mea hoʻoluʻu), a. nā wāwae wāwae. Eia nō naʻe, ma muli o ka lawa ʻole o ka paʻakikī a me ka modulus elastic, aia kekahi mau pōʻino palekana i ka wā e hoʻohana ai.


  I kēia manawa, ua hoʻololi ʻia nā plastics i hoʻololi ʻia. Hoʻopili ʻia a hoʻololi ʻia ma ke kumu o nā plastics maʻamau a me nā plastics engineering ma o ka hoʻopiha ʻana, ka hui ʻana, ka hoʻoikaika a me nā ʻano hana ʻē aʻe e hoʻokō ai i nā waiwai like ʻole o nā huahana plastik. Hiki ke ʻōlelo ʻia no nā plastic i hoʻololi ʻia, ʻo kēlā me kēia ʻāpana palaka i hana maʻamau.


3. Pehea e hoʻololi ai i nā plastic?


  E hoʻomaopopo kākou i nā mea i hana ʻia me nā plastic i hoʻololi ʻia.


kēpau


  ʻO Resin ka mea nui loa o nā plastic. E pili ana i nā pūhui molekala kiʻekiʻe ʻaʻole i hui pū ʻia me nā mea hoʻohui like ʻole, ʻo ka hapa nui o ka carbon molecular haʻahaʻa a me ka hydrogen. Mai nā mea maka e like me ka petroleum, ke kinoea maoli, a me nā huahana decomposition lanahu, nā polymers molecular kiʻekiʻe i hoʻomaʻemaʻe ʻia a synthesized e nā ʻano kemika i kapa ʻia he resins synthetic, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka hana ma mua o nā resins maoli.


Hoʻopiha


  I mea e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka ikaika a me ka pale wela o ka plastic, a hoʻomaikaʻi i kona mau waiwai a me ka formability, hoʻohui pinepine mākou i nā mea hoʻopiha i ka plastic. No ka mea ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o kēia mau mea ma mua o nā plastics, hiki iā lākou ke hōʻemi i ke kumukūʻai o nā plastics i hoʻololi ʻia i kekahi ʻano. ʻO nā mea hoʻopiha organik maʻamau he palaoa lāʻau, ʻāpana, pepa, nā lole lole; a ʻo nā mea hoʻopihapiha maʻamau maʻamau he aniani aniani, kalapona ʻeleʻele, kalapona kalapona, a pēlā aku.


Nā mea hoʻohui hou aʻe


  ʻO nā ʻāpana o nā plastic i hoʻololi ʻia ma waho o nā resins a me nā mea hoʻopihapiha i hui pū ʻia e like me nā mea hoʻohui ʻē aʻe. ʻO nā mea maʻamau ka plasticizers, stabilizers, colorants, antioxidants, a pēlā aku.


  E lawe i nā plasticizers i laʻana. Kapa ʻia ʻo Plasticizers he plasticizers, hiki ke hoʻonui i ka plasticity a me ka palupalu o nā plastics, hoʻemi i ka brittleness, a hana maʻalahi i nā huahana. Eia nō naʻe, no ka mea he maʻalahi ka plasticizer i ka wā o ke kaʻina hana, e alakaʻi ia i ka piʻi ʻana o ka helu defect o ka huahana, ʻaʻole ia e ʻōlelo ʻia e hoʻohana ia ma ka nui.


  Hoʻomaopopo maikaʻi ʻia nā Stabilizers e pale i ka resin mai ka luku ʻia a hoʻoheheʻe ʻia e ka māmā a me ka wela i ka wā e hana ai a hoʻohana. ʻO ka mea kala e hoʻonui i ka masterbatch kala, i loaʻa i ka plastic nā kala like ʻole. ʻO ka antioxidant ka mea e pale ai i ka plastic mai ka oxidized a melemele ma ka hoʻomehana ʻana.


ʻEkolu mau ʻano hoʻololi maʻamau:


 iie

 

 ʻO ke ʻano i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ka rigidity, hardness, heat resistance a me nā waiwai ʻē aʻe o nā mea plastik ma o ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā pauka mineral ʻokoʻa i loko o ka mea hoʻopihapiha i kapa ʻia ʻo ka hoʻopiha. Hoʻohana ʻia ka pauka talc maʻamau (TD) e hoʻonui i ka lubricity o ka mea, ke pale ahi, ka pale ʻana i ka waikawa a me ka insulation. Eia kekahi, he wahi hoʻoheheʻe kiʻekiʻe kona, nā waiwai kemika hana ʻole, ka mana adsorption maikaʻi, a me ka maʻalahi o ka mālama ʻana.


Hoʻonui

 

 ʻO ke ʻano i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hoʻomaikaʻi ʻana i ka rigidity, ka ikaika, ka paʻakikī, a me ke kūpaʻa wela o ka mea ma o ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā mea fibrous i ka mea hoʻopihapiha i kapa ʻia he reinforcement. Hiki i nā mea maʻamau e like me ke aniani aniani ke hoʻonui i ka insulation a me ka pale wela o ka mea. I ka manawa like, e hoʻomaikaʻi nui ʻia ke kūpaʻa corrosion a me ka ikaika mechanical o ka mea. Pono e ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo ka nui o ka fiber e alakaʻi i ka ʻili maikaʻi a hoʻemi ʻia ka elongation i ka wā hoʻomaha, no laila, pono e kāohi i ka hapa o kāna hoʻohui.


Blend


  ʻO ke ala e hoʻololi ai i nā waiwai kino a me nā mīkini a me ka hana ʻana i nā waiwai o ka polymer ma o ka hui ʻana i nā resins like ʻole i kapa ʻia ʻo blending. No ka laʻana, ʻo ka mea elastic EPDM, ke hui pū ʻia me nā mea brittle, hiki i nā ʻāpana elastomer i loko o ka mea ke komo pono i kahi ʻāpana o ka ikehu hopena, a laila e hoʻomaikaʻi nui ai i ka paʻakikī o ka polymer.


4. Hoʻololi i ka plastic kaʻina a me ke kumukūʻai


  E lawe i ka mea PP i ʻōlelo ʻia ma luna ma ke ʻano he laʻana. ʻO ka polypropylene (PP) he mau waiwai mechanical maikaʻi loa, akā nele i ka rigidity a paʻakikī i ka electroplating. No laila, no ke kaʻa bumpers, heater grilles, a me kaʻa loko puka panels, nā hiʻohiʻona a me No nā huahana e koi i ka waiwai a me ka paʻa, EPDM hiki ke hui 'ia e hoonui i ko lakou rigidity. Eia hou, ua hoʻopihaʻia ka 20% talcum powder (TD) e hoʻonui i ka paʻa o ka mea a hoʻemi i ka paʻakikī o ka mālamaʻana i ka honua.


PP → PP+EPDM+TD20


  E like me ka hoʻolauna mua ʻana o nā plastics i hoʻololi ʻia a me nā ʻano hoʻololi, hiki iā mākou ke hoʻokaʻawale i ke kumukūʻai o nā mea i hoʻololi ʻia i ʻehā mau ʻāpana: ke kumukūʻai resin mix, ke kumukūʻai hoʻopiha, ke kumukūʻai hoʻohui a me ke kumukūʻai hana. Ma keʻano holoʻokoʻa, ʻoi aku ka resin ma mua o 50% o ka nui o ke kaumaha o ka plastic, nā mea hoʻopihapiha a me nā mea hoʻohuihui no ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o 40% o ka nui o ke kaumaha, a me nā mea hoʻohui no ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o 10% o ka nui o ke kaumaha. E kālele ana kēia i nā koina hana.


  He mea maʻalahi ke kaʻina hana o nā plastic i hoʻololi ʻia. ʻO ka mea mua, ʻo ka resin hui ʻia (PP + EPDM), filler (TD) a me ka hui ʻana i koi ʻia no ka plastic i hoʻololi ʻia e kaupaona ʻia a hui ʻia. Hoʻoheheʻe ʻia lākou i loko o kahi māhoe māhoe, hoʻokuʻu ʻia ma kahi mea hānai ʻaoʻao, a hoʻomaha ʻia e lilo i huahana hope. ʻOki ʻia ke ʻano lāʻau lohi i loko o nā pellets a kānana ʻia. Ma hope o ka hala ʻana o ka nānā ʻana, hiki ke hoʻopaʻa ʻia.


  E lawe i ke kumu kūʻai o nā plastic plastic i hoʻololi ʻia ma ke ʻano he laʻana:


  ʻO ke kumukūʻai waiwai ke kumukūʻai o nā mea maka a me nā mea kōkua, a hiki ke loaʻa ka huina kālā ma ka nānā ʻana i ka māhele o kēlā me kēia mea a me ka helu ʻana i ke kumukūʻai. Eia ka mea i manaʻo ʻia he 8.2 yuan/kg.


  Hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia nā lilo o ka hana ʻana i nā kumu kūʻai pololei a me nā kumu kūʻai ʻole.

ʻO ke kumu kūʻai pololei ma ʻaneʻi e pili ana i ka hana pololei. No ka maʻalahi o ka helu ʻana, ʻo ka helu ʻana i nā koina hana ma ka papa ma lalo nei pū kekahi i nā koina hana ʻole.


kaʻina

Nā mea hana no kēlā me kēia laina

Kumukuai no ka hora hana (CNY/Hora)

Ka nui no ka laina (KG/Hōlā)

Uku hana no ka kilo

hui

0.5

25

800

0.084

E kaomi i waho

1

25

Other

1

30


  Ma o ka nānā 'ana i ke ka'ina hana 'enehana, hiki ke 'ike 'ia ma kahi o 0.5 mau mea ho'ohana e pono ai i ka hui 'ana, a pono pū kekahi mea ho'ohana i ka hana extrusion. No nā loulou ʻē aʻe e like me ka nānā ʻana a me ka hoʻopili ʻana, pono paha kahi mea hoʻohana ʻole. Ke manaʻo nei he 800 kg / hola ka mana hana o kēlā me kēia laina, a ʻo ke kumu kūʻai o nā hola hana ma ka papa ma lalo nei ke kumu helu helu, hiki ke loaʻa ke kumukūʻai hana e like me 0.084 yuan / kg.


  ʻO nā kumukūʻai kūʻokoʻa e pili ana i ka hana kūʻokoʻa, ka mana wahie, ka nui o ka ʻōpala, ka hoʻopili ʻana, ka lawe ʻana, a me nā kumukūʻai hoʻemi. ʻOkoʻa ka nui o ka ʻōpala, ka ʻōpala, a me ka lawe ʻana e like me ka paʻakikī o ka huahana, ka nui, ka wahi hana, a me ka hoʻolālā laina hana. Eia kekahi laʻana e kālailai i ka mana wahie a me ka depreciation.


Mana puhi

Ka mana awelika o ka laina hana (KW)

Uila ʻoihana (CNY/kw.h)

Ka nui no ka laina (KG/Hōlā)

Hoʻohana ikehu no ka kilo

360

0.5

800

0.22


  Ma ka heluhelu ʻana i ka papa inoa o nā mea hana laina hana a me ka nānā ʻana i ka mīkini uila, hiki ke ʻike ʻia ʻo ka mana awelika o ka laina hana ʻo 360kw. Ke lawe nei ʻo Guangzhou ma ke ʻano he laʻana, ʻo ke kumukūʻai uila ʻoihana ʻoihana he 0.5 yuan/kwh, a no kahi laina hana me ka mana o 800 kg / hola, ʻo ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka ikehu he 0.22 yuan/kg.


Ka hoʻolālā hoʻohaʻahaʻa


Waiwai kumu

Manawa hoemi

Awelika o ka ho'ēmi kālā

Hana ʻia i kēlā me kēia mahina (ton)

Hoʻemi i ka kilo

Hoemi hale (hana hoʻokahi)

6000000

20

250000

10000

0.056

Ke emi iho o ka lako (Laina hoʻokahi)

1830000

10

15250

500


  Maanei mākou e noʻonoʻo nui ai i ʻelua ʻano o ka hoʻemi ʻana o ka hale a me ka hoʻemi ʻana o nā lako. ʻO ka manawa depreciation e pili ana i nā kūlana kikoʻī o kēlā me kēia ʻoihana. ʻO ka maʻamau, hoʻokumu ʻia ka depreciation hale ma 20 mau makahiki, a piʻi ka hoʻemi ʻana o nā lako i nā makahiki 8-10. Ma o kēia mau waiwai maʻamau, hiki iā ʻoe ke loaʻa ka uku hoʻemi o 0.056 yuan/kg.


Hōʻuluʻulu kumukūʻai & kumu kūʻai

Māhele Kumukuai

Detail


kumu kūʻai ʻāpana (CNY / Kg)


Koina waiwai

Uku waiwai maka a me na mea kokua


8.2

85%

Nā koina hana

kumu kūʻai pololei

Hana pololei

0.084

Koina kūʻokoʻa

ʻO ka hana kūʻokoʻa

Mana puhi

0.22

Laki hōʻole

0.08

pūʻolo

0.11

ka halihali

0.2

hoʻohaʻahaʻa

0.056

Na lilo no ka manawa

Nā lilo R&D, uku hoʻokele, nā lilo kālā, uku kūʻai

0.45

5%

Loaʻa (ʻawelika)



0.94

10%


  No nā ʻoihana plastik maʻamau, hiki i ka nui o ka loaʻa kālā ma kahi o 15%. No laila, ʻo ke kumu kūʻai o hoʻokahi kilokani o PP i hoʻololi ʻia e like me ka mea i hōʻike ʻia ma ka papa ma luna.


hoouna aku