Alakaʻi no ka hoʻomohala ʻana i kahi laminate keleawe ʻaʻahu ʻaʻahu keleawe ʻaʻole halogen FR4

2022-08-31

  Ma lalo o ke kūlana o ka mālama ʻana i ke kaiapuni honua i nā koi koʻikoʻi, ua hoʻāla ʻia nā mea halogen-free PCB substrate a hoʻomohala wikiwiki i ka waena -1990s. ʻO ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka halogen-free FR4 pepa Ua lilo ka ʻenehana hana ʻenehana i uhi ʻia i ke keleawe i mea koʻikoʻi no ka ʻoihana uhi keleawe i kēia lā a me ka wā e hiki mai ana. Lawe kēia ʻatikala i ke kaʻina hana hoʻomohala o Iapana ma ke ʻano he laʻana no ke kūkākūkā ʻana i ke kuhikuhi o ka hoʻomohala ʻana o nā papa keleawe FR-4 halogen-free. ʻO ke kī i ka hoʻomohala ʻana o nā papa keleawe FR-4 i uhi ʻia i ka halogen he resin haloglyized.


  1. Nā manaʻo hoʻomohala


  ʻO ke kī i ka hoʻomohala ʻana o nā papa keleawe FR-4 i uhi ʻia i ka halogen he resin haloglyized.


  Hoʻomohala ʻenehana hana


  a) ʻEkolu pae


  Hoʻokumu ʻia ka pā keleawe FR-4 i hana ʻia ma Iapana mai ka pae ʻenehana ma Iapana


  Hiki ke hoʻokaʻawale ʻia i ʻekolu pae e like me ka hōʻike ʻana ma ka Papa 1.


  i. Ua kūkulu ʻia nā mea hana CCL o Iapana mai ka waena o 1990s a hiki i ka makahiki 1998 "horizontal i" halogen-free FR4 pepa huahana. Hiki i kēia ʻano CCL ke hoʻokō i nā koi o ka hana maʻamau maʻamau. ʻAʻole wale ia i hana i kekahi noi i nā mea hana PCB kūloko o Iapana ma Iapana, akā ua ana a hoʻohana ʻia hoʻi i loko o nā huahana mīkini uila nui nui ma ʻEulopa. No ka laʻana: ma ka hālāwai "International Hammered Materials" i mālama ʻia ma Suedena i Kepakemapa 1999 a me kahi ʻaha kūkā nui honua ma "Electronics Green" i mālama ʻia ma Berlin, Kelemānia i Kepakemapa 2000, aia lākou a pau i Iapana. ʻO ka hana o ka halogen-free FR-4 copper-covered plate i hana i ka loiloi maikaʻi a me ka hoʻomaopopo ʻana, akā ua kuhikuhi pū ʻia ʻo ka nele o ka dampness ʻo ia "ʻo ke kūpaʻa ʻana i ka wai he pilikia e hoʻomau ʻia ke aʻo ʻana i kēia mea. i ka wā e hiki mai." I kēia pae, ʻaʻole hohonu loa ka haku o nā pūhui phosphate a me ka epoxy resin synthesis ʻenehana i kekahi mau mea hana e hoʻohana wale i ke ʻano hoʻohui e hoʻokō ai i ka hiki ʻana o ke ahi a hiki i kekahi mau waiwai e like me ke kūpaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa.


ʻEkolu pae o ka hoʻomohala ʻenehana pāpaʻi keleawe FR-4 me ka halogen-free


Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Huina Resin

Pūnaehana haku mele o ka epoxy resin halogen me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mea hoʻopaʻa ahi ma muli o ka phosphorus

Pūnaehana haku mele o ka epoxy resin halogen me ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā mea hoʻopaʻa ahi ma muli o ka phosphorus

Hoʻohana ʻia ka ʻōnaehana epoxy hiki ke puhi a me ka phosphorus-free flame retardant

Pahuhopu Kūikawā

Loaʻa i nā hiʻohiʻona maʻamau (me nā pae pale ahi i ka UL94 V0)

ʻO nā koi kaulike holoʻokoʻa o nā hiʻohiʻona (TG kiʻekiʻe, hiki ke hana kiʻekiʻe, kumukūʻai haʻahaʻa, etc.)

ʻO nā koi kaulike holoʻokoʻa o nā hiʻohiʻona e kūpono i nā koi kaiapuni kiʻekiʻe


  i. Ua hoʻomohala ʻia nā ʻenehana ʻokiʻoki o ka FR-4 halogen-free o Iapana i ke kahua "horizontal II" i hōʻike ʻia ma ka Papa 1. Hoʻomaikaʻi kekahi mau mea hana CCL i ke kaulike holoʻokoʻa holoʻokoʻa o ia mau papa, ʻoi aku hoʻi i ka hana noi, me ka hiki ke hana. I kēia manawa, nui nā mea hana ma Iapana a me nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe o ka honua i haku i ka ʻenehana hana ʻenehana paʻa keleawe ʻole halogen FR-4, akā loaʻa iā lākou kahi ʻokoʻa i ka hana noi, ʻoi aku ka hana ʻana.


  ii. He nui nā CCL o nā ʻāina ʻē a me nā loea PCB e wānana ʻo nā huahana "horizontal III" ʻaʻole halogen a me ka phosphorus-free i ka wā e hiki mai ana ke kuhikuhi o ka noiʻi a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana. Keia mea nui ma luna o ka dampness a me ka wela kū'ē koi o ka panel, a me ka phosphorus-ma muli hui o 30 makemake Datong: Handalized FR-4 keleawe-uhi pā ulu holomua holomua 2002NO. 4 Doi: 10.16790 / J. CNKI. 1009-9239. im. Ma 2002.04.009, ke kinoea i hana ʻia e ke kinoea i ka wā o ke ahi o ke kaiapuni a me nā koi o ka hana hou ʻana o ka huahana a me ka hana hou ʻana o ka huahana. I kēia manawa, ke hoʻomohala nei ia i nā ʻōnaehana resin halogen-free a me non-phosphorus FR-4 ma Iapana, ʻEulopa, ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, Taiwan a me nā ʻāina a me nā ʻāina ʻē aʻe. I mea e hoʻokō ai i nā kaʻina hana pale ahi, ʻo nā ala nui e lawe ʻia ai: e hoʻokomo i nā kūkulu ʻana o ka nitrogen a i ʻole ke apo mānoanoa no ka resin phenolic (ma ke ʻano he mea hoʻōla i ka ʻōnaehana) a i ʻole epoxy resin; ; Hoʻololi ʻia ka epoxy resin, e like me ka ʻenehana nano -material, etc.


  b) ʻElua Kaulike


  Manaʻo nui ʻia ʻo ka paʻakikī o ka hoʻomohala ʻana o nā pā keleawe halogen ʻole ka nui o ka epoxy aniani fiber-fiber B & PL (ʻo ia hoʻi, e pili ana i ka FR-4 CCL). ʻO ka mea nui kēia no ka mea ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o kāna noi noi, a i ka hoʻomohala ʻana, pono mākou e hopu i ka equilibrium ʻelua ma waena o ke kaulike a me ke kumukūʻai a me ka hana ma waena o kēlā me kēia hana. No ka loaʻa ʻana o ka pale ahi kiʻekiʻe, pono ia e hilinaʻi i ka "flame retardant" i hana ʻia e ka resin nui, ka pale ahi nui, ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana i ka lapalapa ahi, a me ka mea ho'ōla i ka ʻōnaehana resin. Pono e koho ʻia nā ʻano mea like ʻole ma luna o ke kaulike o ka ho'ōla ʻana e hoʻokō i ke kaulike ma waena o kēlā me kēia hana. ʻAʻole hiki iā ia ke hōʻemi i ka hana kumu mua o FR-4 i mea e hoʻokō ai a hoʻomaikaʻi i kekahi hana. ʻO ka pilikia kaulike ma waena o ke kumukūʻai a me ka hoʻokō ʻana inā paha ka huahana i kūkulu ʻia e ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ka ʻoihana nui nui e hoʻopili nui iā ia i ka hoʻomaka ʻana o ka hoʻomohala ʻana. I ka pōkole, ʻo ke kaʻina hana hoʻomohala holoʻokoʻa o ka haloglyizing i ka pā FR-4 keleawe i uhi ʻia ʻo ia ke kaʻina hana o ka hoʻoponopono ʻana i nā pilikia kaulike ʻelua.


  c) Pilikia Paʻakikī


  I kēia manawa, ʻo ke kumu nui o ka resin pāpaʻa keleawe FR-4 me ka halogen-free: ʻo ka mea pale ahi he phosphorus-nitrogen system main resin he phosphorus epoxy resin i haku ʻia me nā pūhui phosphorus. ʻO ka pilikia e hoʻoponopono ai kēia resin phosphorus-containing i ka wā o ka hoʻomohala ʻana, ʻo ia ka pilikia o ka hydrolysis a me ke kūpaʻa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa. Hoʻohana nui ʻia nā mea substrate JPFR-4 no ka hana ʻana i nā papa multi-layer. I ka hana ʻana o ka papa multi-layer, pono ia e ʻeleʻele, wehe i ka wili, a me nā kaʻina hana electroplating. I loko o kēia mau hana a me ka hana ʻana, ʻo ka hapa nui o ka hopena kemika me ka waikawa ikaika, ka alkali ikaika, a me ka paʻakai i loaʻa i ka mea substrate e loaʻa i ke kūpaʻa kemika maikaʻi. Inā maikaʻi ʻole ke kūpaʻa kemika, ʻo ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana o ka pā haʻahaʻa (e pili ana i ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana o ka phosphorus) o kēia mau wai lāʻau lapaʻau e hoʻopilikia i ka helehelena a me ka hana o ka papa insulating o ka papa. Hoʻopau ia i kēia paʻakikī me ka ʻole o ka halogen-free FR-4 i uhi ʻia i ke keleawe a hiki i nā ʻanuʻu "horizontal Ⅱ" e hoʻokō i ʻelua equilibrium.


  2. Kumu a me ka hana


ʻO nā pāpaʻi keleawe FR-4 i loko o ka phosphorus a me ka nitrogen-free he ʻekolu mau mea nui o ka epoxy resin epoxy retardant ahi i loko o ka nitrogen-containing phenolic resin curing agent i kēia mau ʻano ʻekolu. .


  a) Phosphorus -i loaʻa i ka lapalapa ahi


  I mea e hana ai i ka phosphorus -containing flame retardant ʻaʻole e hōʻemi i ka pale ʻana i ka wai, ka pale kemika a me ke kūpaʻa wela o ka resin curing, ka hoʻomohala ʻana a i ʻole ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā pūhui phosphorus Philippine a me nā pūhui paʻa o nā mea hana CCL.


  i. Huina phosphate Pilipine


  ʻO ka Phosphorus phosphorus kekahi ʻano o ka pūhui phosphorus organik apo. Hiki ke ho'ōla 'ia me ka resin epoxy a me ka resin phenolic i mea ho'opa'a ahi. I kēia manawa, aia nā ʻano ʻelua (industrialized) i kūpono no CCL, ʻo ia hoʻi: DOPO a me ODOPB 1 4-Benzene-Diol. Hōʻike ka Kiʻi 1 i ke ala kaʻina hana o kēia mau pūhui phosphate ʻelua a me kā lākou mau hana kemika.


fr4 pepa


  ʻEhā ʻano o nā generics: CDOP, HPPA, DOPO, a me ODOPB i loko o ke kaʻina hana synthetic. Pehea e hoʻonui ai i ka helu hoʻololi a me ka maʻemaʻe o DOPO a i ʻole ODOPB ke kī i ka ʻenehana phosphate synthetic. ʻO ka hōʻailona DOPO i hana ʻia e ka ʻoihana ʻo Sanguang Chemical Company o Iapana ʻo ka hōʻailona HCA Odopb. Hoʻohana ʻo PHQ i ka HCA hou aku. ʻO ka hiʻohiʻona o HCA he pauda keʻokeʻo a i ʻole kahi ʻāpana lahilahi o ka mānoanoa pili o 1.373 wahi hoʻoheheʻe 118 ° C wahi paila 200 ° C. Loaʻa i ka DOPO a me ka ODOPB ka pane maikaʻi i ka poʻe akamai e hoʻoholo i ke ʻano infrared spectrum infrared spectrum: DOPO's P -H functional base. ʻike ʻia nā piko absorption ma ke kūlana o IR spectrum 2384cm -1. Pēlā nō, i ka wā i hoʻokumu ʻia ai ʻo ODOPB, aia kahi kiʻekiʻe absorption ikaika ma ke kūlana o 3173cm -1 e hōʻoiaʻiʻo ai he kumu hana phenolic -OH.


b) Oxide


  ʻO ka ʻOxide kahi pūhui phosphorus organik me hoʻokahi a ʻoi aku paha nā kī phosphorus -car -car (P -C). ʻO nā hiʻohiʻona o nā wikiō -3 o nā derivatives phosphorus he mea ola nui. ʻOi aku ka maikaʻi o nā ʻano ʻelua o ka ʻanakala oxides i kēia ʻano hui no ka resin CCL. ʻO Triphenly Phoshinc Oxide i kapa ʻia ʻo TPO) ʻO kekahi ke ʻano reactive o ka oxide i loaʻa i nā hale-NH 2: ʻekolu (4-couplet phenyline) oxide [Tris- (4-AMINOBIPHENYL) Phoshinc Oxide i kapa ʻia ʻo TAPO].


  ʻO ka Antoxide oxide ka mea maikaʻi o ka hydrophilic maikaʻi a me ke kūpaʻa lāʻau kiʻekiʻe. I kekahi mau makahiki i hala aku nei, ua manaʻo nui ʻia ʻo ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka phosphorus flame retardant ma ke ʻano he halogen-free FR-4 copper-covered plate no ka ʻōnaehana resin e hōʻemi i kekahi hana. ʻO ka halogen ʻole FR4 pepa fiberglass Ua hoʻokō ʻo CCL i hana ʻia e ke kumu oxide (TPO) i nā koi hana like ʻole (ʻoi aku ka pale ʻana i ka lāʻau). He mea hou kēia.


pepa fiberglass fr4


c) Phosphorus -me ka epoxy resin


  ʻO nā pūhui phosphate Philippine i ʻōlelo ʻia ma luna nei DOPO, ODOPB, a me ka tapo oxide TAPO hiki ke hana like me ka resin epoxy e hoʻohua i ka resin epoxy i loko o ka phosphorus. Hōʻike kēia i ka hopena o DOPO (ʻo ia hoʻi, HCA) a me ka resin epoxy. Hiki i ka hydrogen ikaika ma DOPO ke pane i ka pane pili kea me nā kumu epoxy ma ka resin epoxy e hoʻohua i ka resin epoxy phosphorus. Hōʻike ka Figure 2 i ke ʻano hopena o DOPO a me ka titol phenolic epoxy resin.


  Loaʻa kēia mau hopena ma o nā ʻano he nui o Tongdu i loko o nā hoʻokolohua like ʻole: (1) ʻO nā ʻano o ka epoxy resin kūpono no ka hopena DOPO: phenol -phenolic epoxy resin (EPN), tone phenol -type phenolic epoxy resin Alkyl phenolic epoxy resin, styrene phenolized epoxy resin, a me phenolin phenolic epoxy resin. (2) ʻO ka maʻiʻo phosphorus i loko o ka phosphorus -containing epoxy resin he 0.8WT% a 8WT% o kona ho'ōla. (3) ʻOi aku ma mua o 20% o ka resin epoxy phenolic e pono i loko o ka resin epoxy, inā ʻaʻole e hoʻemi ʻia ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana o ka hoʻōla ʻana o ke keʻa o kēia ʻōnaehana resin epoxy. Hoʻoikaika kino.


  ʻO nā kaʻina hana i hoʻomohala ʻia e nā mea hana Kepani i ke kaʻina hana ʻokoʻa. No ka laʻana, ua māhele ʻia ke kaʻina hana synthesis o Tongdu i ʻelua mau ʻanuʻu: ʻo ka mua, ʻo ka epoxy resin a me ka catalyst tritenophyls e hana ma 150 ° C ma mua o ka hoʻohui ʻana i ka DOPO i nā hopena cross-linking. ʻO ke kaʻina hana i hoʻokomo ʻia ma ka patent o Panasonic Electricity Company he hopena hoʻokahi: DOPO (a i ʻole ODOPB) aia ma lalo o ke alo o ka catalyst dihydramium ammonium chlorine pūhui me ka epoxy resin (multi-official energy base ring oxygen resin me ka ʻole o ka sub-methyl structure. ) ʻO nā kūlana kaʻina hana no nā hopena he 90 ℃ ~ 120 ℃ 4h ~ 7h.


  ʻO ke kī i kēia ʻano o ka resin synthesis ʻo ia ka DOPO pono e hoʻokō piha me ka resin epoxy. Inā ʻaʻole kūpono nā ʻano hopena, ʻo ka DOPO e noho mau ʻole. A ʻoi aku ka ʻino o ka TG a me ke keleawe keleawe o ka FR-4 i uhi ʻia i ke keleawe me kēia resin. No laila, ʻo ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka hopena o ka DOPO he mea nui ia e hōʻoia ai i ke kaulike ma waena o ka hana. ʻO ke ala hoʻomalu o ka hopena hopena e lawe i ke ana hoʻohālikelike e ana i kāna epoxy (e like me ka maʻamau JIS7236-1995). Inā ʻoi aku ka hopena o ka hopena ma mua o 99% o ka waiwai kumu, hiki ke hoʻokō piha ʻia ka DOPO a me ka resin epoxy. Eia kekahi, hiki ke hoʻoholo ʻia ka pae pane ma ka hoʻoholo ʻana i ke kumukūʻai waikawa o ka resin epoxy a me ke koena o ka DOPO (liquid chromatography).


  I ke koho ʻana i nā ʻano resin epoxy, ua hoʻohana ʻo Japanese Panasonic Electric i ka nui -energy -capable heat-resistant epoxy resin me ka ʻole o ke ʻano sub-methyl e hana me DOPO e hana i ʻekolu mau hale phosphorus epoxy resin. Hōʻike ʻia ka Figure 3 ma ka Figure 3. Ma ka epoxy resin structure, no ka mea ʻaʻohe sub -base (-CH 2-), ʻo ka pilina ma waena o ke apo benzene e hoʻonui i ka pakeneka o ka hale benzene i ka molecular rate e pale i ka pilikia o ka wela. kū'ē i ka wela kiʻekiʻe i ka wela kiʻekiʻe. Hana i ka FR4 pepa Hana ʻia ʻo CCL mai ka loaʻa ʻana o ke kūpaʻa wela kiʻekiʻe (TG > 190 ° C).


3. Panina


  a) Ma o ka nui o ka hana hoʻokolohua, he wahi hoʻopili o N a me P-shaped silicon wafers me nā ʻokoʻa P-shaped silicon wafers ma hope o ka hoʻohui ʻana i nā mea hoʻopihapiha like ʻole me nā mea hoʻopihapiha like ʻole. E lawe mai i ka hoʻopiʻi maikaʻi SP + 5 % Al 2 O 3 maʻalahi e lawe mai i ka hoʻopiʻi ʻino.


  b) Hōʻike nā lula o ke kaʻina hoʻopiʻi hoʻopaʻa ʻana i ka pilina o ka mea pale insulation a me nā wafer silika like ʻole ke ʻano o ke ʻano o ka mea pale a me ka ʻili o ka ʻili silicon wafer. ʻO ke kiʻi oxidation a i ʻole ke kiʻi passivation o ka papa e hoʻoholo ai i kahi o ka wafer silika ma ke kaʻina i kau ʻia.


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