Hanau ʻia ʻo Glass Fiber ma kēia ʻano, a he koho maikaʻi nō ia ma kekahi mau kahua

2022-07-04


  Ua ʻoi aku ma mua o 100 mau makahiki i hala aku nei ua hoʻomaka maoli nā composites e ulu i kahi ʻepekema. Me ke au o ka lua o ka hoʻololi ʻenehana, ua wehe pū ke kahua o ka ʻenekinia a me ka ʻenekinia i kahi mokuna hou o ka mōʻaukala. I ka makahiki 1907, ua hānau ʻia ka bakelite, ka mea i kapa ʻia ʻo bakelite, ka resin polymer synthetic mua loa o ka honua, ma New York, USA.


  ʻO Leo Baekeland ka mea nāna i hoʻokumu, he kanaka kemika ʻAmelika Belgian. Ua hana ʻo ia i kēia resin phenolic me ka phenol a me ka formaldehyde ma lalo o kekahi kaomi a me ka mahana. Ua noi maikaʻi ʻo ia no kahi patent a hoʻokumu i kahi hui e kūʻai i kēia mea hou. Hoʻohana nui ʻia kāna mau huahana i nā kula he nui, mai nā uhi insulating a i nā mea kani, mai nā pū kī i nā mea pāʻani, mai nā pihi a i ka mahjong, ʻO nā mea āpau mai nā ʻāpana kaʻa a hiki i ka hoʻokaʻawale rocket. ʻOiai ua hui pū ʻia ka bakelite me United carbon, a laila hoʻololi ʻia i mau kemika kūikawā kūikawā, nui nā huahana i ka wā Baekeland i hana ʻia a hoʻohana ʻia i kēia lā.


  Ma ke ʻano he polymer thermosetting, he kiʻekiʻe ka paʻakikī a me ka brittleness ka resin phenolic. Eia nō naʻe, inā hoʻohui ʻia me nā fibers, nā lole, a me ka pepa, hiki iā lākou ke hoʻokō i nā koi noi he nui a loaʻa iā lākou ke kaʻina hana. I ka ʻoiaʻiʻo, pepa bakelite he mea hoohui o ka sawdust a me ka resin phenolic. Mai ka mea i hana ʻia a hiki i nā makahiki 1930 a me 1940 o ke kenekulia 20, ʻo ia ka makahiki gula o ka resin phenolic, a ʻo ia hoʻi ka makahiki i hoʻomohala ʻia a hana ʻia e like me ka ʻepekema.


  He mea kūpono ke ʻōlelo ʻia ʻo nā kaila i hoʻoikaika ʻia i ke kaula, ʻo ia nā mea i hoʻohui ʻia i ka fiber-reinforced composites, i ʻike mua ʻia ma mua o ka bakelite. Eia nō naʻe, paʻakikī ke hōʻoia inā ua hoʻohana kekahi i ke kaula e hoʻoikaika ai i ka lāʻau mai ka wā i haku ai nā ʻAmelika i ka ʻenehana vulcanization o ka lāʻau maoli i ka makahiki 1839, i kapa ʻia ʻo Charles Goodyear, i hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia ka lāʻau vulcanized i nā kaila, a hiki i 68 mau makahiki ma hope. ka hānau ʻana o ka bakelite i ka makahiki 1907. Ua manaʻo ʻia ʻo ia ma hope o ka makahiki 1907, no ka mea, ʻaʻole i hoʻohana nui ʻia ke kaula pulupulu i nā huila kaila e like me ke kaula o ka hanauna mua a hiki i ka makahiki 1920.


  ʻO 1932 kekahi manawa poina ʻole i ka mōʻaukala o nā mea hoʻohui. I kēlā makahiki, ʻo nā pāʻani ʻo Slater, he ʻenekinia 36 makahiki i puka mai ke Kulanui ʻo Purdue a hana ʻo ia ma Owens Illinois hui aniani ma Ohio no hoʻokahi makahiki wale nō, ua hoʻokomo ʻia ka ea i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i loko o ke aniani hoʻoheheʻe ʻia a loaʻa ʻole nā ​​​​mea aniani. ʻO ka mea nui, hiki ke hoʻohana ʻia kēia ʻano no ke kaha kiʻi mau. ʻOiai ʻaʻole kēia ka manawa mua i hana ai ke kanaka i ka fiber aniani, ʻo ia ka manawa mua e hiki ke hana ʻia ka fiber mau ma ke ʻano nui.


  Ua loaʻa iā Slater ka palapala hōʻailona US no ka mea hou i ka makahiki 1938 a ua lilo ʻo ia i pelekikena hope ʻenehana o Owens Corning fiber glass Corp. i kēlā makahiki. He hui kūikawā ka hui i hoʻokumu pū ʻia e Owens Illinois a me ka corningglass hana ma 1935 a hoʻohana i ka ʻenehana Slater e hana i nā fiber aniani. A hiki i kēia manawa, ʻo ia nō kekahi o nā hui aniani fiber nui loa ma ka honua -.


  I ka wā mua, ʻaʻole i hoʻohana ʻia ke aniani fiber no ka hana ʻana i nā mea i hoʻohui ʻia, akā e like me ka papa insulation thermal o nā hale, akā ua hōʻike koke lākou i ka mana nui e like me ka hoʻoikaika ʻana o nā mea i hoʻohui ʻia, a hoʻomau ʻia e hoʻohana ʻia e like me ke kiʻekiʻe o ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka fiber aniani a hiki i i kēia manawa. I kēia manawa, ʻo ka ikaika kiʻekiʻe a me ka ʻoʻoleʻa kiʻekiʻe a me ka S2 aniani fibers i hoʻohana nui ʻia i nā mea hoʻohui kiʻekiʻe ʻo ia ka hanauna hou o nā fibers i hoʻoikaika ʻia o ka hui OC. He mea kūpono loa ka haʻi ʻana aku he ʻike maopopo loa nā fiber aniani i ka microwave radar i hoʻohālikelike ʻia me nā fibers hoʻoikaika ʻē aʻe, e like me ka fiber carbon a i ʻole aramid fiber. No laila, he koho maikaʻi loa lākou no ka hana ʻana i nā mea hoʻoikaika composite no nā mokulele a me nā radomes honua.


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