FR-4 Pono e ʻike ʻia ma mua o ka paʻi ʻana i ka PCB

2023-05-05

1. FR4 pepa, i kākau pū ʻia ʻo FR4, he inoa a he pae maʻamau


  ʻO ka mea substrate organik i hoʻohana ʻia no ka hana ʻana PCBs Aia ʻekolu mau ʻāpana: resin, mea hoʻoikaika, a me ka foil keleawe conductive.

FR4 pepa


  ʻO ka FR-4, e like me ka inoa, pili i ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka lole fiber glass ma ke ʻano he mea hoʻoikaika i ka hana ʻana i nā papa kaapuni i paʻi ʻia, a ʻo ka ʻōnaehana resin kahi huaʻōlelo maʻamau no ka epoxy resin laminated sheets. He huaʻōlelo maʻamau wale nō ka FR-4 no ke ʻano metala. ʻO ka lole fiber aniani he fiber aniani ʻeleʻele i ulana ʻia i loko o kahi mea lahilahi, e like me ka lole. Hana ka fiber Glass i ka FR-4 e pono ai ke kūkulu ʻana. Hoʻopuni ʻia kēia lole fiberglass a hoʻopaʻa ʻia e ka epoxy resin me nā mea hoʻohui ahi. Hāʻawi nā resins i ka rigidity a me nā waiwai kino ʻē aʻe.


  Hoʻokumu ʻia ka kikoʻī FR-4 e NEMA (Electrical Manufacturers Association of America), a ua hōʻike ʻia ka papa inoa maʻamau o ka PCB NEMA substrate grades ma ka papa ma lalo.


Papa

kēpau

Hoʻoikaika

Hoʻolālā Pahū

XPC

Haʻenehana

Pepa Uila

ʻAʻole, UL94 HB

XXXPC

Haʻenehana

Pepa Uila

ʻAʻole, UL94 HB

FR-1-AE

Haʻenehana

Pepa Uila

ʻAe, UL94 V-1

FR-2-AE

Haʻenehana

Pepa Uila

ʻAe, UL94 V-1

FR-3-AE

ʻO kaʻahu

Pepa Uila

ʻAe, UL94 V-1

FR-4-AE

ʻO kaʻahu

Puluniu aniani

ʻAe, UL94 V-0

FR-5-AE

ʻO kaʻahu

Puluniu aniani

ʻAe, UL94 V-0

G-10

ʻO kaʻahu

Puluniu aniani

ʻAʻole

CEM-1

ʻO kaʻahu

Pepa Tissue Glass Fiber

ʻAe, UL94 V-0

CEM-2

ʻO kaʻahu

Pepa Tissue Glass Fiber

ʻAʻole

CEM-3

ʻO kaʻahu

Pepa Fiber Fiber Glass

ʻAe, UL94 V-0

 

  ʻO ka FR i ka NEMA classification standard e hōʻike ana i ka Flame Retardant a i ʻole Fire Resistant, ʻo ia hoʻi i ʻike ʻia ʻo ka helu ahi. No laila, ʻo nā papa helu FR nā papa pale ahi, a ʻo ka helu "4" e hoʻokaʻawale i nā mea mai nā mea ʻē aʻe o ka papa like. Hōʻike ka 4 he resin epoxy ka resin, ʻo ka mea hoʻoikaika i ka lole fiberglass, a ʻo ka helu ahi ʻo UL94 V-0. ʻO UL 1V-2 ka papa pale ahi o FR-3, FR-94, a me FR-1, a ʻokoʻa nā resins a me nā mea hoʻoikaika i hoʻohana ʻia.


  I ka makahiki 1950, ua hoʻokomo ʻia nā substrates phenolic copper-clad substrate a hoʻohana nui ʻia i nā lako uila e like me nā lekiō a me nā kīwī. Eia nō naʻe, he haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa kēia mea uila a ʻaʻole pale i ke ahi. I kēlā manawa, nui nā pōʻino ahi i hoʻokumu ʻia e ka uila uila TV ma ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa, no laila ua hoʻokaʻawale ʻo NEMA i nā papa PCB substrate like ʻole e pili ana i ka noʻonoʻo ʻana i ka palekana uila, e pili ana i ka flammability, ke kūpaʻa wela kiʻekiʻe, ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana a me nā hōʻailona ʻē aʻe o ke kaapuni. papa substrate, akā ʻaʻole i kuhikuhi i nā waiwai uila o ka substrate, e like me ka dielectric mau, ka tangent poho a me nā hōʻailona ʻē aʻe.


  Hoʻokahi wale nō pae ʻo FR-4 i ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana o ka substrate NEMA, e hōʻike ana i ka waeʻano mea wale nō, ʻaʻole ka mea kikoʻī. ʻO kahi pilikia maʻamau ʻo ia ka huikau pinepine ʻana o FR-4 me kahi dielectric kikoʻī, e like me ka mea FR-4 i kā mākou polokalamu simulation, nona ka paʻamau dielectric paʻamau o 4.2 a me kahi tangent angle pohō o 0.02. Eia nō naʻe, ʻo ka nui o nā papa haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa he mau mea papa FR-4.


2. No ke aha he papa maʻamau ʻo FR4 i nā hale hana PCB


  ʻO nā papa PCB mua loa i hoʻohana nui ʻia he pepa phenolic copper clad substrates, e like me XPC a me XXXPC, he mea kūʻai ʻole akā ʻaʻole pale ahi. Ma hope o nā ulia ahi i hoʻokumu ʻia e nā hemahema kaapuni i ka makahiki 1970, ua hoʻomaka nā mea uila nui e hoʻohana i nā substrate retardant ahi. ʻO ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā substrates phenolic copper clad substrates FR-1 a me FR-2 me nā waiwai pale ahi ua ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o nā substrate XPC a me XXXPC.


  I ka makahiki 1980, hoʻomaka ʻia nā polokalamu kelepona multimedia e kaulana, e like me Walkmans a me BPM. Hoʻomaka nā PCB e hoʻomohala i ka miniaturization a me ka kiʻekiʻe kiʻekiʻe, a ua lilo ka noi ʻana o ka PCB multilayer i mea maʻamau, i alakaʻi ʻia i ka hoʻomohala ʻana i nā substrates PCB.


  ʻOiai ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o nā substrate pepa e like me XPC a me FR-1 ma mua o ka epoxy fiberglass fabric substrate FR-4, ʻaʻole maikaʻi lākou e like me FR-4 ma ke ʻano o ka hoʻoheheʻe ʻana i ka wai, ka pale ʻana i ka wela, a me ka ikaika mechanical. I nā lā mua, ua hoʻohana maʻamau ʻia nā substrate pepa no nā huahana kūʻai maʻalahi, ʻoiai ʻo FR-4 ka mea maʻamau no nā huahana ʻoihana.


  Akā i ka neʻe ʻana o nā mea kūʻai aku i nā liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi, ʻoi aku ka māmā a me ka lahilahi, ke hoʻonui nei ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā paneli FR-4. Me ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o nā PCB me nā mānoanoa maʻamau mai ka 1.6 mm a i ka 0.8 mm, ua lilo ka ikaika mechanical a me ke kūpaʻa ʻana o nā substrates pepa i pilikia. Eia kekahi, ʻaʻole kūpono nā substrates pepa no ka hana ʻana i nā papa multi-layer, a me ka hoʻomohala ʻana o ka miniaturization mea hana, ke piʻi nei ka nui o ka uwila PCB, a ke piʻi nei ka mākeke o nā papa multi-layer. No laila, ʻoiai ke kumukūʻai kiʻekiʻe o nā panela FR-4, ke neʻe mālie nei nā huahana mea kūʻai aku i nā panela FR-4.


  ʻO kekahi kumu koʻikoʻi no ke koho nui ʻana o nā ʻoihana PCB template FR-4 ma mua o ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā substrate pepa ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi, ʻaʻole kūpono nā substrate pepa no nā kaʻina wili, no nā kaʻina hana punching wale nō, ʻoiai ʻo FR-4 he maʻalahi loa ke hana.


  Me ka hoʻonui mau ʻana o ka mana hana no nā mea e like me ka epoxy resin a me ka lole fiberglass, ʻo ka substrate FR-4 maʻamau i kēia manawa he mea haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa me nā waiwai mechanical maikaʻi loa a me ka hiki ke hana, e kaulana loa ia i waena o nā mea hana uila haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa honua. .


3. Nā hōʻailona hana o FR-4-AE


  ʻO ka FR-4 substrate he ʻōnaehana resin epoxy, no laila ua lōʻihi ka helu Tg i mea hōʻailona maʻamau i hoʻohana ʻia e hoʻokaʻawale i nā māka substrate FR-4 a ʻo ia kekahi o nā hōʻailona hana nui i ka kikoʻī IPC-4101.


Ke aniani hoʻololi wela Tg


  ʻO ka waiwai Tg o kahi ʻōnaehana resin e pili ana i ka helu hoʻololi wela kahi e hoʻololi ai kekahi mea mai kahi kūlana ʻoʻoleʻa a i ʻole "aniani" i kahi kūlana maʻalahi a palupalu. ʻOiai ʻaʻole e decompose ka resin, hiki ke hoʻololi mau kēia hoʻololi thermodynamic. 'O ia ho'i, ke ho'omāhana 'ia ka mea mai kahi lumi wela a hiki i kahi mahana i 'oi a'e ma mua o ka waiwai Tg, a laila ho'omaha 'ia ma lalo o ka waiwai Tg, hiki iā ia ke ho'i i kahi 'o'ole'a me nā waiwai like ma mua. Eia nō naʻe, ke hoʻomehana ʻia ka mea i kahi mahana i ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe ma mua o kona waiwai Tg, hiki ke alakaʻi i nā loli hiki ʻole ke hoʻololi. ʻO ka hopena o kēia mahana e pili kokoke ana i ke ʻano o ka mea a me ka decomposition thermal o ka resin.


  ʻO ka mea maʻamau, ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o ka Tg o ka substrate, ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o ka hilinaʻi o ka mea. Inā hoʻohana ʻia ke kaʻina hana kuʻi ʻole ke alakaʻi, pono e noʻonoʻo i ka mahana decomposition thermal (Td) o ka substrate.


  ʻO nā hōʻailona hana koʻikoʻi ʻē aʻe e pili ana i ka coefficient o ka hoʻonui wela (CTE), ka ʻai ʻana i ka wai, nā ʻano adhesion o nā mea, a me nā hoʻāʻo manawa delamination maʻamau, e like me nā hōʻike T260 a me T288.


4. Ka like ole o FR4 pepa


  He aha nā ʻokoʻa kikoʻī ma waena o nā mea i loko o kēia ʻāpana, me ka hoʻohana ʻana i ka lole fiberglass ma ke ʻano he mea hoʻoikaika, epoxy resin e like me ka ʻōnaehana resin, a me FR-4 ma ke ʻano kumu me ka helu ahi retardant o UL 94V-0?


E puunaue ma muli o ka waiwai Tg


  ʻO ka ʻokoʻa loa ma waena o nā mea FR-4 ka waiwai Tg. Wahi a ka wela Tg, ua māhele ʻia nā ʻāpana FR-4 i nā ʻāpana Tg haʻahaʻa, Tg waena, a me nā ʻāpana Tg kiʻekiʻe.


  Ma ka ʻoihana, ʻo FR-4 me Tg ma kahi o 135 ℃ ka mea maʻamau e helu ʻia he pepa Tg haʻahaʻa; E lawe iā FR-4 me Tg ma kahi o 150 ℃ ma ke ʻano he pā Tg waena; 


E hoʻokaʻawale iā FR-4 me ka 170 ℃ Tg ma ke ʻano he pā Tg kiʻekiʻe.


  Inā he nui nā manawa kaomi, nui nā papa PCB (ma luna o 14 mau papa), kiʻekiʻe welding wela (≥ 230 ℃), kiʻekiʻe hana wela (ma luna o 100 ℃), a i ʻole kiʻekiʻe welding thermal stress (e like me ka nalu ʻana) i ka wā o ka hana PCB, kiʻekiʻe Pono e koho ʻia nā papa Tg.

Māhele ma muli o nā poho

Papa poho maʻamau (Df ≥ 0.02)

ʻO ka pā poho waena (0.01

Pepa poho haahaa (0.005

Pepa poho haahaa loa (Df < 0.005)


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